Most people are suffering from water inadequacy that poses a threat to food security. Water is needed mainly in growing crops apart from using it for cooking or drinking. That limited aqua supply requires an efficient irrigation system. Moreover, with uncertain rain levels, irrigation is the only way that ensures constant plant growth even in the dry season. However, to use limited water efficiently, drip or trickle irrigation is the most proficient method. Even by the word ‘drip,’ this means feeding plants with small water drops. Typically, trickle watering aims to drip the liquid at the root base or wet the soil, which agriculturists recommend in irrigation. Furthermore, this irrigation involves the supply of moisture as a fine mist or small streamlets. By sprinkling, Rain Bird irrigation rotors are essential to use. Drip irrigation is classified into two types, which are surface irrigation and subsurface irrigation.
In this type, the pipes are laid on the ground surface. That means the Rain Bird irrigation rotors or other sprinklers are in contact with crops. The surface category is further classified into the following types.
Point source emitters
Here, the target is the root base of the plant. Its significance is that the moisture nourishes the root structure. The pipes are raised at a certain level with the nozzle in an inverted position. Therefore water drips at the root margin.
Inline drip emitters
The pipe lays above ground with perforated holes. These holes drip water at the soil instead of directly to the plant. Trickling drops enable the land to soak before evaporation. Moreover, wetting the soil contributes to water retention that the crop continuously uses.
The use of soaker hoses
This system uses the porous tube resembling a hose pipe that waters along its path. The water is in less potion. The hose drips moisture on plants and soaks the soil. The tube is laid flat on the ground helping foliage of crops remain dry to prevent fungal infection. However, they don’t allow pressure differences like in steep areas.
Micro spray sprinkler
The micro sprayers are preferred when the landscape disallows the drip system. That is like on rugged grounds where laying the pipe is impossible. This method is dissimilar to the conventional sprinkling system in many ways. First, the moisture is not in jets or gushes but appears like a mist. The projection of water is of low pressure compared to sprinklers. The irrigation device seems low height compared to the sprinkling system. The use of Rain Bird irrigation rotors is applicable. This rotors system projects water at the base of roots and soaks the soil.
This category involves burying the pipe across the crops. That is to ensure zero evaporation. The tube is also perforated and will drip the root basin in an underground position. However, it is hard to observe if the pipe is damaged or plugged.
What are the Advantages of Using Drip or Trickle Irrigation?
- The water supply is directed to the roots, unlike the sprinklers, which wets the crop leaves. When the leaves are wet, they wane and promote fungal and pest growth.
- Enhances the application of fertilizers and the pesticides
- The irrigation types are easy to install, design, and cheap to buy the pipes.
- It moisturizes the soil that nourishes the plants for long.
- There is reduced weed growth due to soil soaking.
- The crop moisturizing is constant because as soon as the water dries, it is replaced by other drips.
- There is less aqua evaporation since the drips are not affected by direct sunlight.
- The system ensures water conservation and disallows any soil erosion.